WWW.BOOK.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, abstracts, thesis
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS

Pages:   || 2 | 3 |

«Topic: Effects Based Operations By Dr. Paul W. Phister, Jr., Dan Fayette, Emily Krzysiak Point of Contact Dr. Paul W. Phister, Jr. AF Research ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

CyberCraft: Concept Linking NCW Principles with the Cyber Domain in an Urban Operational

Environment

Topic: Effects Based Operations

By Dr. Paul W. Phister, Jr., Dan Fayette, Emily Krzysiak

Point of Contact

Dr. Paul W. Phister, Jr.

AF Research Laboratory, Information Directorate

AFRL/IFB, Bldg 106, Room B-113

26 Electronic Parkway

Rome NY 13441-4514

Phone: (315)330-3315

FAX: (315)330-7043

paul.phister@rl.af.mil

CyberCraft: Concept Linking NCW Principles with the Cyber Domain in an Urban Operational Environment Dr. Paul W. Phister, Jr., Dan Fayette, Emily Krzysiak Abstract With the entry into the Information Age comes a new theory of warfare—Network Centric Warfare (NCW). Currently, discussions regarding NCW have concentrated on the traditional forms of warfare, namely those that occur within the sub-surface, surface, air and space mediums. Additionally, limited discussions have centered on the asymmetric aspect of the new threat, i.e., joint urban operations. Great strides are being made linking NCW to asymmetric threats, but again these have centered on sub-surface, surface, air and space mediums. There is another medium that can be utilized that has the potential of becoming the most effective use of military force in the Information Age. Using the Cyber Domain to conduct military operations within an urban environment has significant potential. This paper presents an introduction of a new “cyber vehicle”, called the “CyberCraft”, which performs similar operations as conventional vehicles, such as as a “strike” platform (e.g., deny, destroy, degrade, disrupt or deceive) or as an “Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance (ISR)” platform (e.g., find, fix, track, monitor); however, the “CyberCraft” operates solely within the cyber domain to extend the arm of military application of force.

Additionally, within the concept of this new vehicle, this paper discusses the: a) factors unique to conducting military operations within an urban environment; b) challenges of performing NCW and Effects Based Operations (EBO) within an urban environment; and, c) research areas and technology challenges to pursue regarding utilizing the “CyberCraft” in an urban environment.

Introduction With the entry into the Information Age comes a new theory of warfare—Network Centric Warfare (NCW). Currently, discussions regarding NCW have concentrated on the traditional forms of warfare;

namely, those that occur within the sub-surface, surface, air and space mediums. Additionally, limited discussions have been centered on the asymmetric aspect of the new threat, i.e., Joint Urban Operations (JUO). Great strides have been made linking NCW to asymmetric threats, but again these have centered on sub-surface, surface, air and space mediums. There is another medium that can be utilized that has the potential of becoming the most effective use of military force in the Information Age. Using the cyber domain to conduct military operations within an urban or global environment will allow us to globally project our influence with minimal or no collateral damage. The “Cyber Craft” is our concept to accomplish this objective.

Unique Factors of JUO Environment

Urban operations have historically been characterized by a slower operational-level tempo, with higher casualty rates among both combatants and noncombatants, and extensive collateral damage by the same types of forces conducting operations in non-urban terrain. Operations in the urban environment can no longer be considered an “elective” competency of the joint force. Our adversaries have already recognized the potential of using the urban battlespace to mitigate our overwhelming military advantages. 1 Our civilian and military leaders must understand how we deal with urban operations and how it will resonate with the adversary, populace, the US population, nongovernmental organizations, and the international community.2 We see this playing out every day in places like Iraq.

The Joint Urban Operations Integrating Concept specifies eight principles to guide the planning, preparation, deployment, employment, and sustainment for urban operations. These principles illustrate differences and similarities with conventional military engagements. The eight principles are: 1) understanding the complex urban environment, 2) see first, see clearly, and see in depth, 3) control the urban environment, 4) identify and isolate the adversary, 5) take the initiative and control the tempo of operations, 6) engage the adversary comprehensively, 7) ensure every action contributes to achieving the desired end state, and 8) balance restraint and overmatching power.3 Probably the most significant factor regarding engagements within an urban environment is the complexity of that environment. First, the physical terrain is composed of highly developed urban landscape, with urban canyons (streets with buildings on both sides), vertical terrain (high rise structures), and subsurface maneuver space (underground sewers, subways, rivers). Second, the urban environment includes political, cultural, religious, economic, legal, information, and infrastructure networks by which a society functions.

Third, the density and collective thoughts of the urban population vary greatly and are arguably the most important and difficult factors influencing urban operations.4 We propose adding cyber operations with its variety of devices, telecommunications, internet café’s, networked systems and systems, etc to the complexities described above and as a means to affect them as well.





The conduction of urban operations is not new to the military. Since World War II, the military has had to conduct operations within various urban environments, such as: Paris, Moscow and Berlin, not to mention the thousands of villages in France, Belgium, and Germany. What has significantly changed over the last 60-years is that attacks using firepower alone to destroy key infrastructure and degrade enemy operational capability to affect the enemy leadership’s will and public support produce limited and often Joint Urban Operations Integrating Concept, DRAFT Version 1.0, 13 Oct 2004, page 9.

Joint Urban Operations Integrating Concept, DRAFT Version 1.0, 13 Oct 2004, page 10.

Joint Urban Operations Integrating Concept, DRAFT Version 1.0, 13 Oct 2004, page 10.

Joint Urban Operations Integrating Concept, DRAFT Version 1.0, 13 Oct 2004, page 10.

counterproductive effects.5 Thus, to achieve desired effects within an urban environment requires a totally different approach by our military forces. In addition to the conventional urban factors and military tactics against urban scenarios, the widespread use of wireless techniques and devices in the cyber realm offer us unique opportunities to approach urban warfare with unique methods that may produce the desired effect without the physical damage to the urban infrastructure.

Challenges of NCW within JUO Environment

With the entry into the Information Age comes a new theory of warfare—Network-Centric Warfare. The focus of NCW is networking battlespace entities (e.g., platforms with planners) so they can work in concert to achieve synergistic effects.6 The postulates of NCW can be stated as follows: 1) a robustly networked force improves information sharing; 2) information sharing and collaboration enhances the quality of information and shared situational awareness; 3) shared situational awareness enables collaboration and self-synchronization which enhances sustainability and speed of command; and, 4) these in turn, dramatically increases mission effectiveness -- the bottom line). Alberts, etc. al., highlight the fact that NCW is based on adopting a new way of thinking, i.e., network centric thinking.7 Figure 1 illustrates the value chain of Network Centric Warfare. Three attributes can be used to describe portions of NCW: “Build the net”, “Protect the net”, and “Populate the net” with the end goal of bringing “Power to the Edge”.

“Power to the Edge” is the ability of the total force to dynamically synchronize their actions in order to achieve Command and Control (C2) agility and increase the speed of command over a robust, networked grid that is not only well protected but allows any entity to join “the fight” in order to achieve a strategic/operational/tactical mission objective.

Figure 1: NCW Value Chain8

Joint Urban Operations Integrating Concept, DRAFT Version 1.0, 13 Oct 2004, page 10.

Alberts, D.S., Garstka, J.J., and Stein, F.P. “Network Centric Warfare: Developing and Leveraging Information Superiority,” CCRP Publication Series (2002, 2nd Edition, page 2.

Alberts, D.S., Hayes, R.E., “Power to the Edge: Command and Control in the Information Age,” CCRP Publication Series (2003), page 18.

Alberts, D.S., Garstka, J.J., Hayes, R.E., and Signori, D.A. “Understanding Information Age Warfare,” CCRP Publication Series (2001), page 77.

Given the variety of elements involved in the Information Age of warfare and its effects-based orientation, command intent must be congruent across several elements (joint forces), coalition elements (combined), interagency partners, international organizations, and non-governmental organizations9.

Currently, discussions regarding NCW have concentrated on the traditional forms of warfare, namely those that occur within the sub-surface, surface, air and space mediums. Additionally, limited discussions have been centered on the asymmetric aspect of the new threat, i.e., joint urban operations. Great strides have been made linking NCW to asymmetric threats, but again these have centered on sub-surface, surface, air and space mediums. What is missing is the conduction of operations within the cyber domain. NCW is about human and organizational behavior as well as the traditional systems interactions to achieve effect.

As previously stated, this discussion has focused mainly on “traditional” forces and not cyber. One reason could be that employing cyber forces, with trust, is a very daunting task.

Additionally, the current thrust of NCW centers around a network-centric infrastructure that is controlled by the US and her Allies. One of the largest challenges of NCW is applying the theory in a Joint Urban Operations environment where the warfighter wants to interject into an adversary’s network which may or may not be of similar composition to our own. Figure 2 illustrates challenge to be able to influence into an adversary’s network in real-time. Consequently, the theory of NCW needs to be expanded to include not only the networking of friendly battlespace entities, but having the ability to conduct warfare against or within an adversary’s network, wireless device, telecommunications system, etc.

–  –  –

What is a Cyber-Craft?

As mentioned earlier, there is another medium that can be utilized that has the potential of becoming the most effective use of military force within the Information Age. Using the cyber domain to conduct military operations within a military environment (urban operations, anti-terrorism, and near-peer traditional operations) has significant potential to create the desired effects with either little or minimal collateral damage. This leads us to the new concept called the “CyberCraft”. There are a lot of similarities between the “CyberCraft” which operates in the cyber domain with that of aircraft that operate in the air domain. Table 1 below shows some of these similarities. This new capability, “Cyber-Craft”, can perform similar operations as conventional vehicles (e.g., UAV’s), such as a “strike” platform (e.g., deny, destroy, degrade, disrupt or deceive) or as an “ISR” platform (e.g., find, fix, track, monitor); however, the “CyberCraft” operates solely within the cyber domain to extend the arm of military application of force application and force protection. The characteristics of a “Cyber-Craft” include the ability to be launched from a network platform, the ability to embed control instructions within the craft, the ability to positively control the “Cyber-Craft” from a remote network location, the capability for the craft to self-destruct upon being recognized, the capability for the craft to operate with minimal or no signature/footprint, and the ability for the “Cyber-Craft” to rendezvous and cooperate with other friendly “Cyber-Craft”.9 There are some important challenges of NCW and EBO, which is enabled by NCW, and its relationship to JUO. Key attributes like self-synchronization and collaboration play a vital role within a joint urban operations environment. However linking ourselves to synchronizing force structure employed today and not taking full advantage of the cyber domain is restricting possibilities which could be the “tool” of choice.

–  –  –

Information taken from a 2005 AFRL/IF MURI Proposal.

Cyber-Craft Operations within JUO Environment It is envisioned that the “Cyber-Craft” could operate at three levels, namely strategic, operational and

tactical. The mission and objectives would be different at each level, for example:

1. At the strategic level the “cyber-craft” could be sent out to perform long-standing intelligence requirements. Some examples being to monitor a military barracks, accumulate financial information on a potentially hostile nation, or provide status on the political climate of a South American country. This “cyber-craft” would essentially operate for months or years gathering this long-term information.

2. At the operational level, the “cyber-craft” could be sent out to perform near-term operational requirements. Some examples would be how many tanks or trucks are currently at a specified military installation, is a deeply buried bunker occupied and conducting operations, where the political and military leaders are, what is the status of their C2 infrastructure, or how many aircraft are usable at a specified airfield. Due to the volatility of operational information, the “cyber-craft would just have to operate for days and weeks.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 |


Similar works:

«February 2016 Profile Badging Step-by-Step Guide for Partners Profile Badging Step-by-Step Guide Table of Contents Introduction Mandatory Requirements to be recognized as an OPN Specialist. 2 How to Create an Oracle.com Account Quick Overview of Oracle.com Account Steps Steps to Create an Oracle.com Account Process for Partner Users to Change Username in MyProfile (oracle.com account) How to Badge your Oracle.com Account to your Company ID. 8 How to Change the Company ID your SSO is badge to:...»

«kus aktie kus aktie Deutsche Bank Aktie (514000): Aktienkurs, Chart, News WKN 514000 | ISIN DE0005140008 | Deutsche Bank Aktie mit aktuellem Realtime Kurs, Chart, Nachrichten, Fundamentaldaten, Analysen, Meinungen Empfehlungen. Salzgitter AG Aktie | Aktienkurs | Chart | 620200 Salzgitter AG Aktie im Überblick: Realtimekurs, Chart, Fundamentaldaten, Kurs bei Signal Perf. seit Signal; 04.03. Bollinger Ausbruch nach oben. short. ThyssenKrupp Aktie Aktienkurs | Kurs | DE0007500001 ThyssenKrupp...»

«GERTRUDE STEIN AND HER AUDIENCE: SMALL PRESSES, LITTLE MAGAZINES, AND THE RECONFIGURATION OF MODERN AUTHORSHIP KALI MCKAY BACHELOR OF ARTS, UNIVERSITY OF LETHBRIDGE, 2006 A Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies of the University of Lethbridge in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree MASTER OF ARTS Department of English University of Lethbridge LETHBRIDGE, ALBERTA, CANADA © Kali McKay, 2010 Abstract: This thesis examines the publishing career of Gertrude Stein, an...»

«25 th EECERA ANNUAL CONFERENCE ‘INNOVATION, EXPERIMENTATION AND ADVENTURE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD' Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain 7th 10th September 2015 ABSTRACT BOOK ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: EECERA 2015 organisers would like to thank the Scientific Committee for their freely given time, diligence and scholarship. Sílvia Blanch Gelabert (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) Mequè Edo I Basté (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) Lurdes Martínez Mínguez (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) Maria Neus...»

«„Markierung literarischen Weißseins: Post-kritische Weißseinsdiskurse im zeitgenössischen amerikanischen Roman“ Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde durch den Promotionsausschuss Dr. phil. der Universität Bremen vorgelegt von Katharina Bick Bremen, den 26.11.2012 1. Gutachterin: Prof. Dr. Sabine Broeck 2. Gutachterin: Dr. Karin Esders Diese Veröffentlichung lag dem Promotionsausschuss Dr. phil. der Universität Bremen als Dissertation vor. Das Promotionskolloquium fand am...»

«√ ◊ O e s t e r r e i c h i s c h e Nat i ona l b a n k Stability and Security. Working Paper 111 E u rop e a n Financial Market I n t e g r at i on i n t h e G r ü n d e r boom and Gründerkrach: Evidence f rom E u rop e a n C ro s s L i s t i n g s Markus Baltzer with comments by Luis Catão and by Isabel Schnabel EUROSYSTEM Editorial Board of the Working Papers Eduard Hochreiter, Coordinating Editor Ernest Gnan, Guenther Thonabauer Peter Mooslechner Doris Ritzberger-Gruenwald Statement...»

«PACIFIC EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER NGA-West2 Equations for Predicting Response Spectral Accelerations for Shallow Crustal Earthquakes David M. Boore US Geological Survey Menlo Park, CA Jonathan P. Stewart Emel Seyhan Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California, Los Angeles Gail M. Atkinson Western University Ontario, Canada PEER 2013/05 MAY 2013 Disclaimer The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are...»

«Eigene Zusammenfassung und nicht-autorisierte Übersetzung der Kuba-Koordinationsgruppe der deutschen Sektion von amnesty international Verbindlich ist nur das Original in Englisch!Übersetzung des Dossiers: Cuba: 71 prisoners of conscience continue to be imprisoned for expressing their ideas 18.3.2005 amnesty international Kuba: 71 Politische Gefangene weiterhin in Haft Zusammenfassung Amnesty International ist besorgt über 71 Politische Gefangene in Kuba, die nach Meinung der Organisation...»

«UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF FLORIDA MIAMI DIVISION SCHECK INVESTMENTS, L.P., a Case No. 04-21160-Civ-Moreno/Garner Florida limited partnership and PAUL 0c PAPPAS, individually and in their r N representative capacity for all those 7K similarly situated, Plaintiffs, v. ynL r _ cc VIATICAL BENEFACTORS, LLC ; et al., Defendants. MOTION OF CALABRIA ASSETS LIMITED, ELENA PARRALES, INDIVIDUALLY AND ON BEHALF OF FRANOVA INVESTMENT LTD., THE PMT IRREVOCABLE TRUST, SCHECK...»

«Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Better GP Benchmarks: Community Survey Results and Proposals David R. White, James McDermott, Mauro Castelli, Luca Manzoni, Brian W. Goldman, Gabriel Kronberger, Wojciech Ja´kowski, Una-May O’Reilly, s and Sean Luke Received: date / Accepted: date Abstract We present the results of a community survey regarding genetic programming (GP) benchmark practices. Analysis shows broad consensus that improvement...»

«Vol. 2 No. 2 January 2011 Foreword I would like to welcome you to the fourth Issue of the College of Computer and http://info.psu.edu.sa/psu/cis/research Information Sciences (CCIS) Research Newsletter. This issue provides up-to-date information about the scholarly activities conducted by the faculty members. Inside this issue This newsletter, published by the CCIS Research Committee, represents an important research communication channel. 1 Foreword Research is an essential element in the...»

«Job Openings in Your Area Refer Job Seekers MAXOutreach is a free service that distributes job openings to organizations like yours who help people find work. Distribute these jobs to job seekers who you think have matching skills. Put local jobs from MAXOutreach on your website. It's easy. Build Your Job Widget Find out how it helps you accomplish your mission. Review all local jobs for your area from MAXOutreach here. Operations Assistant View details Coca-Cola Refreshments Wilsonville, OR to...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Books, abstracts, thesis

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.