«ARIZONA GAME AND FISH DEPARTMENT HERITAGE DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Plant Abstract Element Code: PDFAB1A1K0 Data Sensitivity: No CLASSIFICATION, ...»
ARIZONA GAME AND FISH DEPARTMENT
HERITAGE DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Element Code: PDFAB1A1K0
Data Sensitivity: No
CLASSIFICATION, NOMENCLATURE, DESCRIPTION, RANGE
NAME: Dalea tentaculoides Gentry
COMMON NAME: Gentry Indigo Bush
FAMILY: Fabaceae AUTHOR, PLACE OF PUBLICATION: Gentry, H. S. 1950. Madroño 10:238.
TYPE LOCALITY: Arizona: Santa Cruz County: Pajarito Mountains: Sycamore Canyon.
TYPE SPECIMEN: ARIZ 30239. R.A. Darrow. 09 May 1941.
TAXONOMIC UNIQUENESS: Kearney et al. (1960) list 36 species of Dalea in Arizona.
However, the taxonomy is unclear. "Dalea tentaculoides is a distinctive member of the genus, with no closely related species" (Toolin, 1982).
A distinct, recently described species in a genus of 250-300 species in the warmer parts of the Americas (NatureServe 2001).
DESCRIPTION: Shrubby, erect, perennial shrub (has been referred to as perennial herb), growing from woody root crown, up to 2.0 m (6.6 ft.) high but usually less; up to 1 m (3.28 ft) tall. Numerous hairless stems in older plants, 30.0-50.0 cm (12.0-20.0 in.) tall. Stems branch from near base, covered with pustulate tubercles. Young branches are green, turn brown with age. Compound leaves 3.0-6.0 cm (1.2-2.4 in.) long with 9-17 pairs of leaflets, upper leaves smaller with 3-8 pairs of leaflets; Hairless leaflets, midribs not obvious, notched at tips, dotted with small punctate glands below (Gori). Flowers sessile 6.0 mm (0.24 in.) long, bracts persistent, 3.0-5.0 mm wide. Inflorescences spiked, flowers sessile (6 mm), borne in oblong clusters, petals rose-purple, borne above middle of stamen tube. Sepals, floral bracts, and branches bear elongate, tentacle-like glands. Seeds 1.5 mm long.
AIDS TO IDENTIFICATION: Only Dalea with elongate, tentacle-like glands on calyx and floral bract. Easily confused with, and misidentified as, D. versicolor and D. greggii. D.
pulchra has grey-green hair covered leaflets. Each leaf has 2-4 pairs of leaflets, and inflorescence is sphere. D. sessilis and D. versicolor (Now  D. versicolor sessilis) are spring blooming, 4-9 pairs of curved (smaller than D. tentaculoides)), leaflets per leaf. D.
versicolor has blister glands on calyx.
AGFD Plant Abstract -2- Dalea tentaculoides
ILLUSTRATIONS:Line drawing (Barneby 1977:835) Line drawing (USDI, FWS) Color drawing (http://www.pima.gov/cmo/sdcp/ ) TOTAL RANGE: Southern Arizona, and one site in Mexico.
RANGE WITHIN ARIZONA: Santa Cruz County: Sycamore Canyon drainage in Atascosa and Pajarito Mountains; Pima County: Baboquivari Mountains (in the 1930s), 1965 location in Mendoza Canyon.
SPECIES BIOLOGY AND POPULATION TRENDSGROWTH FORM: Herbaceous perennial shrub.
PHENOLOGY: May be bifloral, flowering April-June, and possibly again in SeptemberOctober, following winter and summer rains. Flowers smaller at second flowering, looking more like globe.
BIOLOGY: Plants grow back vigorously (resprout) when buried by flooding; multiple stems arising from under ground make it difficult to determine number of individuals. Largest plants in 1991 were found in the lee of obstructions (boulders, trees), protecting plants from severe flooding effects. Largest clumps in Sycamore Canyon on lee side of trees and boulders. Plants survived severe flooding in 1990.
HABITAT: Found along canyon bottom on cobble terraces subject to occasional flooding.
Historic collection records indicate possible growth on rocky hillsides. Occurs in disturbance prone environments.
SUBSTRATE: Sandy, gravelly loam of rhyolite parent material.
PLANT COMMUNITY: Oak-juniper woodland and Madrean Evergreen Woodland.
Associated species include: Platanus wrightii, Fraxinus velutina, Juglans major and Quercus spp.
POPULATION TRENDS: In Sycamore Canyon (1981), only one population of over 100 plants found. In 1989, problems with fence maintenance of Goodding Research Natural Area allowed extensive livestock utilization of Sycamore Canyon population (1990). Fence was repaired and the population improved; between 1990 and 1991, population increased from AGFD Plant Abstract -3- Dalea tentaculoides 1291 to 1389 individuals. Study plot, however, showed higher mortality than recruitment, with population dropping from 148 to 118. Despite drop, mortality very low for larger size classes; significant growth of last year's individuals. Hence, number of large individuals nearly quadrupled. Number of inflorescences produced increased greatly (Malusa et al.
1992). In early 1993, severe flooding occurred. When plot was surveyed in June, 1993, 20individuals observed although many were completely covered by sand (Falk and Warren 1994).
Species not found in Mendoza Canyon (Gori 1994), although 1965 specimen from that location has detailed locality information.
Specimen of Dalea from Kitt Peak, Quinlan Mountains (see Toolin 1986) determined NOT to be Dalea tentaculoides by The Nature Conservancy in 1990.
Population size varies year to year (impacts from trespassing cattle and flooding, 1990). Can rebound rapidly by root sprouting. Plants grows along flood plains along streams, and thus are subject to being “scoured out” by seasonal flooding (DBG 1999).
Current status and trend of population is unknown.
MANAGEMENT FACTORS: Major threats include seasonal flooding, limited range, habitat degradation due to grazing by livestock, consumption by livestock, and trampling by people and livestock. Fence maintenance needed to be maintained to protect populations.
AGFD Plant Abstract -4- Dalea tentaculoides
SUGGESTED PROJECTS: Seed collection needed for future reintroduction, along with additional surveys (particularly east side of Baboquivaris) to determine potential habitat.
Monitoring of whole drainage (Sycamore Canyon population) needed to better understand plant's adaptation to disturbance.
LAND MANAGEMENT/OWNERSHIP: USFS - Coronado National Forest; BIA - Tohono O'odham Nation.
SOURCES OF FURTHER INFORMATION
Arizona Revised Statutes, Chapter 7. 1993. Arizona Native Plant Law. Appendix A:2.
Arizona Revised Statutes, Chapter 7. 1999. Arizona Native Plant Law. Appendix A:2.
Arizona Revised Statutes, Chapter 7. Arizona Native Plant Law. Accessed 2011, AZDA.
Barneby, R.C. 1977. Daleae imagines. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden. 27:467Desert Botanical Garden (DBG). 1999. Dalea tentaculoides (Gentry Indigo Bush), Papilionaceae. http://www.dbg.org/collections/dalea_tentaculoides.html.
Falk, D.A. and P.L. Warren. 1994. Rare plants of the Coronado National Forest: population studies and monitoring recommendations pp: 49, 145-146.
Falk, E. 1999 draft. Dalea tentaculoides (Gentry Indigo Bush), Fabaceae. Draft abstract from Arizona Rare Plant Book, in prep.
Gentry, H.S. 1950. Studies in the genus Dalea. Madroño 10:225-250.
Gori, D., J. Malusa, P.L. Warren and E.S. Monarque (TNC). 1991. Population studies of sensitive plants of the Huachuca, Patagonia and Atascosa Mountains, Arizona.
Kearney, T.H., R.H. Peebles with collaborators. 1960. Arizona flora. Second edition with supplement by J.T. Howell, E. McClintock and collaborators. University of California Press. Berkeley. pp.432-439.
Malusa, J., D.F. Gori, P.L. Warren and E.S. Monarque (TNC). 1992. Population studies of sensitive plants of the Coronado National Forest, Arizona.
NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. 2001. Version 1.6.
Arlington, Virginia, USA: NatureServe. Available: http://www.natureserve.org/explorer.
(Accessed: December 12, 2001).
Toolin, L.J., T.R. Van Devender and J.M. Kaiser. 1979. The flora of Sycamore Canyon, Pajarito Mountains, Santa Cruz County, Arizona. Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science. 14:66-74.
Toolin, L.J. 1982. Status Report Dalea tentaculoides Gentry. Report prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
AGFD Plant Abstract -5- Dalea tentaculoidesToolin, L.J. 1986. Notes on rare U.S. Plants from Arizona, I: Including a Talinum (Portulacaceae) new to the U.S. Phytologia 60(4):237-242.
USDA, Forest Service Region 3. 1990. Regional Forester's Sensitive Species List.
USDA, Forest Service Region 3. 1999. Regional Forester's Sensitive Species List.
USDA, Forest Service Region 3. 2007. Regional Forester’s List of Sensitive Plants.
USDI, Bureau of Land Management. 2000. Arizona BLM Sensitive Species List. Instruction Memorandum No. AZ-2000-018.
USDI, Bureau of Land Management. 2005. Arizona BLM Sensitive Species List.
USDI, Bureau of Land management Region 2. 2008. Arizona BLM Sensitive Species List.
USDI, Bureau of Land management Region 2. 2010. Arizona BLM Sensitive Species List.
USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1975. Threatened or Endangered Fauna or Flora. Federal Register 40(127):27829.
USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1980. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants;
Review of Plant Taxa for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species. Federal Register 45(242):82503.
USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1985. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants;
Review of Plant Taxa for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species. Notice of Review. Federal Register 50(188):00017.
USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1990. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants;
Review of Plant Taxa for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species; Notice of Review. Federal Register 55(35):6200.
USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. Plant Taxa for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species; Notice of Review. Federal Register 58(188):51160.
USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants:
Review of Plant and Animal Taxa that are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species; Notice of Review; Proposed Rule. Federal Register 61(40):7604.
USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1997. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants;
Review of Plant and Animal Taxa that are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened, Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions, and Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Notice of Review; Proposed Rule. Federal Register 62(182):49406.
USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1998. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants;
Notice of Reclassification of Four Candidate Taxa: Pediocactus paradinei (Kaibab Plains Cactus), Castilleja elongata (Tall Paintbrush), Dalea tentaculoides (Gentry’s Indiogobush), and Astragalus oophorus var. clokeyanus (Clokey’s Eggvetch); Notice of Review; Proposed Rule. Federal Register 63(63):16217-16218.
MAJOR KNOWLEDGEABLE INDIVIDUALS:Mima Falk - Botanist, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Tucson, Arizona Dave Gori - The Nature Conservancy, Tucson, Arizona Jack Kaiser - Retired (USDA), Nogales, Arizona Jim Malusa – The Nature Conservancy, Tucson, Arizona Peter Warren - Tucson, Arizona
AGFD Plant Abstract -6- Dalea tentaculoides
To the user of this abstract: you may use the entire abstract or any part of it. We do request, however, that if you make use of this abstract in plans, reports, publications, etc. that you credit
the Arizona Game and Fish Department. Please use the following citation:
Arizona Game and Fish Department. 20XX (= year of last revision as indicated at end of abstract). X...X (= taxon of animal or plant). Unpublished abstract compiled and edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ. X pp.
Comparison of D. tentaculoides, D. pulchra and D. versicolor ssp. sessilis (All have same growth form)